“Treatable traits” have been proposed as a new paradigm for the management of airway diseases, particularly complex disease, which aims to apply personalised medicine to each individual to improve outcomes. Moving new treatment approaches from concepts to practice is challenging, but necessary. In an effort to accelerate progress in research and practice relating to the treatable traits approach, the Treatable Traits Down Under International Workshop was convened in Melbourne, Australia in May 2018. Here, we report the key concepts and research questions that emerged in discussions during the meeting. We propose a programme of research that involves gaining international consensus on candidate traits, recognising the prevalence of traits, and identifying a potential hierarchy of traits based on their clinical impact and responsiveness to treatment. We also reflect on research methods and designs that can generate new knowledge related to efficacy of the treatable traits approach and consider multidisciplinary models of care that may aid its implementation into practice.