In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the esthetic outcomes of various types of Class II treatment. In this study, it was the authors' intent to determine the esthetic outcomes for 60 Class II division 1 patients: 28 patients treated during the active growth phase with an activator and fixed appliances and 32 patients treated at the completion of growth with fixed appliances and by orthognathic surgery. Using a visual analogue scale, a mixed panel of 14 judges scored the pre- and posttreatment attractiveness of these patients from frontal and lateral facial photographs. Statistical analysis by two-sample t-tests indicated that, on average, esthetic scores improved with treatment, regardless of the treatment modality. There was, however, considerable individual variation in the degree of improvement, even to the point that there was a decline in esthetics for some patients. Despite somewhat different modes of treatment, it was found that neither the average pre- and posttreatment esthetic scores nor the change in esthetic score with treatment was significantly different for the two groups. Although clinical planning decisions should still be made on an individual basis, the findings of this study suggest that the perceived esthetic outcome in many Class II division 1 patients may well be just as favorable, regardless of whether they are managed early during the growth phase or later, at the completion of growth by orthognathic surgery.