The purpose of this study was to examine dimensional changes in the maxillary arch following the extractions of maxillary first or second premolars. Pre- and posttreatment records of 71 patients treated by one experienced orthodontist were randomly selected from completed premolar extraction cases. Forty-five patients involved the extraction of maxillary first premolars; of these, 15 also had extractions of mandibular first premolars and 30 had extractions of mandibular second premolars. Twenty-six patients involved the extraction of maxillary second premolars, and all of these also had extractions of mandibular second premolars. Pretreatment factors that seemed to suggest a basis for the extraction choice in this sample included incisal overjet, molar relationship, and maxillary incisor protrusion. Mean reductions with treatment in the anteroposterior arch dimension were similar within all premolar extraction groups. There was evidence of greater mean maxillary intermolar-width reduction following the extractions of maxillary second premolars than following extractions of maxillary first premolars. Greater mean maxillary incisor retraction was found in the maxillary first premolar extraction group than in the maxillary second premolar group. A wide range of individual variation in incisor and molar changes did, however, accompany treatment involving both maxillary premolar extraction sequences.