The effects of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) on proliferation and differentiation in the immature (postnatal day 9) and juvenile (postnatal day 21) mouse hippocampus were investigated by injecting bromodeoxyuridine (50 mg/kg) daily for 7 days after the insult and evaluating the labeling 5 weeks after HI. Phenotypic differentiation was evaluated using NeuN, Iba1, APC, and S100beta as markers of neurons, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes, respectively. The basal proliferation, in particular neurogenesis, was higher in the immature than in the juvenile hippocampus. Hypoxia-ischemia did not increase neurogenesis significantly in the immature dentate gyrus (DG), but it increased several-fold in the juvenile brain, reaching the same level as in the normal, noninjured immature brain. This suggests that the immature hippocampus is already working at the top of its proliferative capacity and that even though basal neurogenesis decreased with age, the injury-induced generation of new neurons in the juvenile hippocampus could not increase beyond the basal level of the immature brain. Generation of glial cells of all three types after HI was significantly more pronounced in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus region of the juvenile hippocampus. In the DG, only microglia production was greater in the juvenile brain. Increased microglia proliferation correlated with increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and IL-18 3 days after HI, indicating that the inflammatory response is stronger in the juvenile hippocampus. In summary, contrary to what has been generally assumed, our results indicate that the juvenile brain has a greater capacity for neurogenesis after injury than the immature brain.