The increasing knowledge regarding central nervous function and plasticity is of great importance for modern rehabilitation. In a recent symposium, the themes covered were brain plasticity, motor control, spasticity and pain modulation. It was demonstrated that the cortex is dynamic with respect to structure as well as function, which can be observed both spontaneously and after rehabilitation interventions. An enriched environment has been proven to be of great importance for regeneration and plasticity in the central nervous system. This is also clear regarding activation and survival of the neural stem cells. "Constraint-induced therapy" has aroused considerable interest but controlled studies are needed for evaluation. The increasing knowledge regarding motor control and spasticity gives a valuable platform for clinical interventions. Knowledge about modulation of pain signals within the central nervous system will increase the therapeutic possibilities at long-standing pain, for example, concerning increased sensitivity and impaired inhibition.