Interunit Reliability and Effect of Data-Processing Methods of Global Positioning Systems Academic Article uri icon


  • Purpose: To establish the interunit reliability of a range of global positioning system (GPS)-derived movement indicators, to determine the variation between manufacturers, and to investigate the difference between software-derived and raw data. Methods: A range of movement variables were obtained from 27 GPS units from 3 manufacturers (GPSports EVO, 10 Hz, n = 10; STATSports Apex, 10 Hz, n = 10; and Catapult S5, 10 Hz, n = 7) that measured the same team-sport simulation session while positioned on a sled. The interunit reliability was determined using the coefficient of variation (%) and 90% confidence limits, whereas between-manufacturers comparisons and comparisons of software versus raw processed data were established using standardized effect sizes and 90% confidence limits. Results: The interunit reliability for both software and raw processed data ranged from good to poor (coefficient of variation = 0.2%; ±1.5% to 78.2%; ±1.5%), with distance, speed, and maximal speed exhibiting the best reliability. There were substantial differences between manufacturers, particularly for threshold-based acceleration and deceleration variables (effect sizes; ±90% confidence limits: −2.0; ±0.1 to 1.9; ±0.1), and there were substantial differences between data-processing methods for a range of movement indicators. Conclusions: The interunit reliability of most movement indicators was deemed as good regardless of processing method, suggesting that practitioners can have confidence within systems. Standardized data-processing methods are recommended, due to the large differences between data outputs from various manufacturer-derived software.


publication date

  • 2019