BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected atherothrombotic risk factors and several clinical manifestations of atherothrombosis, as well as the utilization rates of selected vascular interventions in Greece. METHODS: During December 2009, 3,007 adults (aged 47 ± 16 years, 48.3% men and 51.7% women) recruited in a random-digit dialed telephone survey (response rate: 16%). The sample size was selected following a multistage and stratified by gender, age group, and Greek region procedure in order to be more representative. Data regarding medical history and socio-demographic characteristics of the participants were collected. RESULTS: Overall, 6.5%, 17.7% and 14.0% of participants reported that they had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. In the overall sample, 2.5% of participants reported that they had been diagnosed with angina, 2.0% with myocardial infarction, 1.6% with stroke and 2.5% with peripheral artery disease. Overall, 1.5% of participants reported that they had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention, 1.4% coronary artery bypass grafting, 0.6% angioplasty of a peripheral vessel, and 0.7% surgery of a peripheral vessel. CONCLUSION: Despite the limitations may occur due to the sampling procedure, the findings of the present study indicate that atherothrombosis affects a large portion of the population in Greece and it is expected to impose a significant economic burden. The data of the current study could contribute in obtaining an accurate estimation of the economic burden of atherothrombosis in Greece because people who are aware of their condition/disease are those who use health care resources.