High-throughput targeted lipid profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has been used extensively to identify associations between plasma lipid species and disease states. Such methods, used to characterize larger clinical cohorts, often suffer from an inability to differentiate isomeric forms of glycerophospholipids that are typically reported as the sum fatty acid carbons and double bonds. Here we report a chromatography gradient coupled with a detailed characterization of the human plasma lipidome to provide improved resolution and identification of 636 lipid species, including previously unreported species, in a 15-min analysis. We have utilized this method on a subset of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study and have detailed associations of plasma lipid species with anthropometric and blood glucose measures. These results highlight the importance and power of high-throughput lipidomics coupled with a detailed characterization of the lipidome to better understand lipid biology in a population setting.