BACKGROUND: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and intensive multiple daily insulin injections (iMDI) program are treatment options in patients with type 1 diabetes not achieving optimal glycemic control. The long-term effects of CSII in patients with type 1 diabetes in comparison with those educated for iMDI are poorly documented. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Medical records for patients commenced on CSII or undertaking an iMDI program between 2000 and 2011 were extracted. Change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hypoglycemia, and weight were analyzed. Prior to CSII or iMDI commencement, all patients were on basal bolus analog insulin. Data from blood glucose meter downloads before and 6 months after CSII and iMDI were also analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-six CSII and 121 iMDI patients were studied, with mean (±SD) follow-up of 39±26 and 48±26 months, respectively. For CSII, HbA1c was significantly lower than baseline at every time period up to 36 months. Peak HbA1c reduction was 0.64% at 6 months, following which the HbA1c change declined. For iMDI, HbA1c was significantly reduced only at 6 months, by 0.15%. Glucose meter data were available for 119 patients. CSII-treated patients had a significant decrease in mean glucose and glucose SD with no change hypoglycemia at 6 months compared with baseline; no differences were observed for iMDI-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: CSII in type 1 diabetes is associated with improved glycemic control with no increase in hypoglycemia. HbA1c improvement declined over time, suggesting a need for re-education after CSII commencement. The iMDI program did not have significant glycemic benefits.