OBJECTIVE: In whites, a larger hip circumference has been shown to be associated with a better metabolic profile, after adjustment for BMI and waist circumference. Our aim was to investigate this association in a variety of ethnic groups, some highly susceptible to type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We measured weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting and 2-hour postload glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in 1020 Melanesians, 767 Micronesians, 3697 Indians, and 2710 Creoles from Pacific and Indian Ocean islands. Leptin and body fat percentage were determined in Indian and Creole Mauritians only. RESULTS: In all ethnic groups, larger hip circumference was associated with lower glucose and triglyceride levels in both sexes and higher high-density lipoprotein levels in women only, after adjustment for waist circumference, BMI, and age. Adjustment for height or leptin did not materially change the results. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, we confirmed the protective association of relatively larger hips in four nonwhite ethnic groups. Leptin does not seem to play a mediating role in this association.