OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk for type 2 diabetes by body habitus measurements among remote-living Australian Aborigines relative to that measured in the general Australian population (as characterized by the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle [AusDiab] study). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and diabetes status were assessed by standard procedures among Aborigines (n = 1,456) and Australians aged >or=25 years (n = 11,247). Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes among Aborigines relative to AusDiab participants were calculated by commonly used categories of body size measurements. RESULTS: The OR (95% CI) values for diabetes among normal, overweight, and obese (by waist) Aboriginal women relative to AusDiab women were 2.6 (0.6-11.5), 13.1 (6.7-25.7), and 6.1 (4.6-8.0), respectively, and for Aboriginal men relative to AusDiab men, they were 7.6 (4.6-12.5), 7.6 (4.3-13.4), and 5.2 (3.4-8.0), respectively. Rates of diabetes were also excessive in Aborigines for each standard category of BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of diabetes, even at normal and lower body habitus measurements, among Aborigines suggest that strategies for prevention should expand beyond exclusive focus on diet and weight management.