OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether beneficial effects on glycemic control of an initial laboratory-supervised resistance training program could be sustained through a community center-based maintenance program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 57 overweight (BMI >or=27 kg/m2) sedentary men and women aged 40-80 years with established (>6 months) type 2 diabetes. Initially, all participants attended a twice-weekly 2-month supervised resistance training program conducted in the exercise laboratory. Thereafter, participants undertook a resistance training maintenance program (2 times/week) for 12 months and were randomly assigned to carry this out either in a community fitness and recreation center (center) or in their domestic environment (home). Glycemic control (HbA1c [A1C]) was assessed at 0, 2, and 14 months. RESULTS: Pooling data from the two groups for the 2-month supervised resistance training program showed that compared with baseline, mean A1C fell by -0.4% [95% CI -0.6 to -0.2]. Within-group comparisons showed that A1C remained lower than baseline values at 14 months in the center group (-0.4% [-0.7 to -0.03]) but not in the home group (-0.1% [-0.4 to 0.3]). However, no between-group differences were observed at each time point. Changes in A1C during the maintenance period were positively associated with exercise adherence in the center group only. CONCLUSIONS: Center-based but not home-based resistance training was associated with the maintenance of modestly improved glycemic control from baseline, which was proportional to program adherence. Our findings emphasize the need to develop and test behavioral methods to promote healthy lifestyles including increased physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes.