Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission Academic Article uri icon


  • Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply.


  • Falk, Magnus
  • Alcalde, Miguel
  • Bartlett, Philip N
  • De Lacey, Antonio L
  • Gorton, Lo
  • Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina
  • Haddad, Raoudha
  • Kilburn, Jeremy
  • Leech, Dónal
  • Ludwig, Roland
  • Magner, Edmond
  • Mate, Diana M
  • Connolly, Peter
  • Ortiz, Roberto
  • Pita, Marcos
  • Pöller, Sascha
  • Ruzgas, Tautgirdas
  • Salaj-Kosla, Urszula
  • Schuhmann, Wolfgang
  • Sebelius, Fredrik
  • Shao, Minling
  • Stoica, Leonard
  • Sygmund, Cristoph
  • Tilly, Jonas
  • Toscano, Miguel D
  • Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi
  • Wright, Emma
  • Shleev, Sergey

publication date

  • 2014