The unique chemical and functional properties of nanoparticles can be harnessed for the delivery of large quantities of various therapeutic biomolecules. Active targeting of nanoparticles by conjugating ligands that bind to target cells strongly facilitates accumulation, internalization into target cells and longer retention at the target site, with consequent enhanced therapeutic effects. Recombinant antibodies with high selectivity and availability for a vast range of targets will dominate the future. In this review, we systematically outline the tremendous progress in the conjugation of antibodies to nanoparticles and the clear advantages that recombinant antibodies offer in the therapeutic targeting of nanoparticles. The demonstrated flexibility of recombinant antibody coupling to nanoparticles highlights the bright future of this technology for modern therapeutic nanomedicine.