Plasma soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels are increased in pathologies associated with atherosclerosis, including peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). However, the role of sP-selectin in regulating leukocyte-endothelial adhesion is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of exogenous and endogenous sP-selectin to induce leukocyte responses that promote their adhesion to various forms of endothelium. In flow chamber assays, sP-selectin dose-dependently increased neutrophil adhesion to resting human iliac artery endothelial cells. Similarly, sP-selectin induced neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial surface of murine aortae and human radial venous segments in ex vivo flow chamber experiments. Using intravital microscopy to examine postcapillary venules in the mouse cremaster muscle, in vivo administration of sP-selectin was also found to significantly increase leukocyte rolling and adhesion in unstimulated postcapillary venules. Using a Mac-1-specific antibody and P-selectin knockout mouse, it was demonstrated that this finding was dependent on a contribution of Mac-1 to leukocyte rolling and endothelial P-selectin expression. This was confirmed in an ex vivo perfusion model using viable mouse aorta and human radial vessels. In contrast, with tumor necrosis factor-alpha-activated endothelial cells and intact endothelium, where neutrophil adhesion was already elevated, sP-selectin failed to further increase adhesion. Plasma samples from PAOD patients containing pathologically elevated concentrations of sP-selectin also increased neutrophil adhesion to the endothelium in a sP-selectin-dependent manner, as demonstrated by immunodepletion of sP-selectin. These studies demonstrate that raised plasma sP-selectin may influence the early progression of vascular disease by promoting leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium in PAOD, through Mac-1-mediated rolling and dependent on endothelial P-selectin expression.