A conceptual framework for patient-directed knowledge tools to support patient-centred care: Results from an evidence-informed consensus meeting Academic Article uri icon


  • Objective

    Patient-directed knowledge tools are designed to engage patients in dialogue or deliberation, to support patient decision-making or self-care of chronic conditions. However, an abundance of these exists. The tools themselves and their purposes are not always clearly defined; creating challenges for developers and users (professionals, patients). The study's aim was to develop a conceptual framework of patient-directed knowledge tool types.


    A face-to-face evidence-informed consensus meeting with 15 international experts. After the meeting, the framework went through two rounds of feedback before informal consensus was reached.


    A conceptual framework containing five patient-directed knowledge tool types was developed. The first part of the framework describes the tools' purposes and the second focuses on the tools' core elements.


    The framework provides clarity on which types of patient-directed tools exist, the purposes they serve, and which core elements they prototypically include. It is a working framework and will require further refinement as the area develops, alongside validation with a broader group of stakeholders.

    Practice implications

    The framework assists developers and users to know which type a tool belongs, its purpose and core elements, helping them to develop and use the right tool for the right job.


  • Dreesens, Dunja
  • Stiggelbout, Anne
  • Agoritsas, Thomas
  • Elwyn, Glyn
  • Flottorp, Signe
  • Grimshaw, Jeremy
  • Kremer, Leontien
  • Santesso, Nancy
  • Stacey, Dawn
  • Treweek, Shaun
  • Armstrong, Melissa
  • Gagliardi, Anna
  • Hill, Sophie
  • Légaré, France
  • Ryan, Rebecca
  • Vandvik, Per
  • van der Weijden, Trudy

publication date

  • 2019