Mitochondrial and plastid biogenesis requires the biosynthesis and assembly of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the mitochondrial outer membrane protein DGD1 SUPPRESSOR1 (DGS1) is part of a large multi-subunit protein complex that contains the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system 60-kD subunit, the translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40-kD subunit (TOM40), the TOM20s, and the Rieske FeS protein. A point mutation in DGS1, dgs1-1, altered the stability and protease accessibility of this complex. This altered mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial size, lipid content and composition, protein import, and respiratory capacity. Whole plant physiology was affected in the dgs1-1 mutant as evidenced by tolerance to imposed drought stress and altered transcriptional responses of markers of mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Putative orthologs of Arabidopsis DGS1 are conserved in eukaryotes, including the Nuclear Control of ATP Synthase2 (NCA2) protein in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), but lost in Metazoa. The genes encoding DGS1 and NCA2 are part of a similar coexpression network including genes encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial fission, morphology, and lipid homeostasis. Thus, DGS1 links mitochondrial protein and lipid import with cellular lipid homeostasis and whole plant stress responses.