Understanding contributors to smoking and quitting cigarettes is important to developing effective cessation programs and addressing smoking related morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Using data from a large cross-sectional study of Australian PLHIV we provide a smoking prevalence estimate and explore the relationship between socio-demographic variables and smoking status. We also explore the relationship between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and quitting smoking. Of the 1011 respondents included in the analysis, 30.6% were current smokers. The strongest predictor of smoking was regular cannabis use (AOR 6.2, 95% CI 3.6-10.8) while the strongest predictor of being a past smoker was receiving ART (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7). Quitting also increased around the time of diagnosis and ART initiation, highlighting the potential for these events to be optimal times to address smoking among PLHIV.