BACKGROUND:Traditionally, arthroplasty in heart and lung transplant patients has been undertaken to manage transplant-related complications. More recently, arthroplasty is increasingly being performed for end-stage osteoarthritis. This study reviewed short-term outcomes and complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in heart and lung transplant recipients. METHODS:A retrospective cohort of heart and lung transplant recipients who underwent THA was identified using ICD-10 coding. Post-operative complications and hospital outcomes were collected using the patient medical record. RESULTS:Thirteen patients underwent 17 primary THA between 2008 and 2017, including five for osteoarthritis and 12 for femoral head avascular necrosis. Of the 13 patients, nine were bilateral sequential lung transplant recipients and four were orthotopic heart transplant recipients. The mean patient age was 61 years, with nine being male. Overall, five patients had one post-operative complication with eight having two or more complications. Surgical complications included three intraoperative fractures, three patients with superficial infection and one with deep infection requiring surgery. Seven patients had significant bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Prosthetic dislocations occurred in two patients, with one patient requiring revision surgery (developing a joint infection). Other complications included one pulmonary embolism, two episodes of pneumonia and six episodes of acute kidney injury, whilst three patients developed post-operative delirium. At 6-week follow-up, five patients had ongoing pain and seven had limitations with mobility. At 12-month follow-up, three patients reported ongoing pain. CONCLUSION:Complications following THA after transplant are common. The risks and benefits of THA should be carefully considered preoperatively in this cohort.