Nitroxyl (HNO) is a redox congener of NO˙. We now directly compare the antihypertrophic efficacy of HNO and NO˙ donors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and compare their contributing mechanisms of actions in this setting. Isopropylamine-NONOate (IPA-NO) elicited concentration-dependent inhibition of endothelin-1 (ET1)-induced increases in cardiomyocyte size, with similar suppression of hypertrophic genes. Antihypertrophic IPA-NO actions were significantly attenuated by l-cysteine (HNO scavenger), Rp-8-pCTP-cGMPS (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor), and 1-H-(1,2,4)-oxodiazolo-quinxaline-1-one [ODQ; to target soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)] but were unaffected by carboxy-PTIO (NO˙ scavenger) or CGRP8–37 (calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist). Furthermore, IPA-NO significantly increased cardiomyocyte cGMP 3.5-fold (an l-cysteine-sensitive effect) and stimulated sGC activity threefold, without detectable NO˙ release. IPA-NO also suppressed ET1-induced cardiomyocyte superoxide generation. The pure NO˙ donor diethylamine-NONOate (DEA-NO) reproduced these IPA-NO actions but was sensitive to carboxy-PTIO rather than l-cysteine. Although IPA-NO stimulation of purified sGC was preserved under pyrogallol oxidant stress (in direct contrast to DEA-NO), cardiomyocyte sGC activity after either donor was attenuated by this stress. Excitingly IPA-NO also exhibited acute antihypertrophic actions in response to pressure overload in the intact heart. Together these data strongly suggest that IPA-NO protection against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is independent of both NO˙ and CGRP but rather utilizes novel HNO activation of cGMP signaling. Thus HNO acutely limits hypertrophy independently of NO˙, even under conditions of elevated superoxide. Development of longer-acting HNO donors may thus represent an attractive new strategy for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, as stand-alone and/or add-on therapy to standard care.