Baculovirus inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) act in insect cells to prevent cell death. Here we describe three mammalian homologs of IAP, MIHA, MIHB, and MIHC, and a Drosophila IAP homolog, DIHA. Each protein bears three baculovirus IAP repeats and an N-terminal ring finger motif. Apoptosis mediated by interleukin 1beta converting enzyme (ICE), which can be inhibited by Orgyia pseudotsugata nuclear polyhedrosis virus IAP (OpIAP) and cowpox virus crmA, was also inhibited by MIHA and MIHB. As MIHB and MIHC were able to bind to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2 in yeast two-hybrid assays, these results suggest that IAP proteins that inhibit apoptosis may do so by regulating signals required for activation of ICE-like proteases.