Symbiotic interactions between legume plants and rhizobia induce specific metabolisms and intracellular organelles in nodules. For surveying symbiotic differentiation of a key organelle, mitochondria, protein constituents of soybean nodule and root mitochondria were compared after two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the proteins were characterized in combination with matrix-assisted desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Of the proteins that were detected only in nodule mitochondria, phosphoserine aminotransferase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, one ribonucleoprotein and three unknown proteins were identified. Seven up-regulated, eight down-regulated and two strongly suppressed protein spots in nodule mitochondria were also assigned protein identities. The physiological roles of these differential expressions were discussed in relation to nodule-specific metabolisms in soybean nodules.