The availability of soybean mutants with altered symbiotic properties allowed an investigation of the shoot or root control of the relevant phenotype. By means of grafts between these mutants and wild-type plants (cultivar Bragg and Williams), we demonstrated that supernodulation as well as hypernodulation (nitrate tolerance in nodulation and lack of autoregulation) is shoot controlled in two mutants (nts382 and nts1116) belonging most likely to two separate complementation groups. The supernodulation phenotype was expressed on roots of the parent cultivar Bragg as well as the roots of cultivar Williams. Likewise it was shown that non-nodulation (resistance to Bradyrhizobium) is root controlled in mutant nod49. The shoot control of nodule initiation is epistatically suppressed by the non-nodulation, root-expressed mutation. These findings suggest that different plant organs can influence the expression of the nodulation phenotype.