Twelve species of vertebrates occupied nest boxes located in foothill forest trees in Gippsland, Vic., between 1977 and 1980. Boxes varied in entrance diameter, height above ground, and orientation. Over the study period 38% of boxes were found occupied and another 40% showed signs of having been visited. Occupancies were higher at the site with fewer natural hollows. Seasonal use of boxes varied between mammals and birds and between species. Boxes with small entrances were preferred, and low boxes were avoided by all species except the brown antechinus. Preference for the highest boxes was significant at one site only. Preference for diameter of entrance hole was significant for brown antechinus, sugar glider and crimson rosella; height was significant for sugar glider and brown antechinus; orientation was not significant for any species.