Development and preliminary validation of the Paediatric Awareness Questionnaire for children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury Academic Article uri icon


  • There is a lack of validated measures for assessing self-awareness of deficits after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Paediatric Awareness Questionnaire (PAQ), and investigate factors related to self-awareness. The PAQ was administered to 32 children aged 8-16 years with mild to severe TBI (72% male, M age = 11.75, SD = 2.9), their parents, and treating clinicians, and to 32 age- and gender-matched typically developing controls and their parents. Children with TBI and their parents also completed the Knowledge of Injury Checklist (KIC), and parents completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. The PAQ was found to have fair to excellent (α = .79-.97) internal consistency for all versions across both groups and good concordance between parent and clinician total scores (ICC = .78). There was also evidence of convergent validity between the PAQ and KIC for both child (r = -.45, p < .05) and parent ratings (r = -.66, p < .001). Poorer self-awareness was significantly related to younger age at injury for the TBI group and lower parental education for the total sample. ANCOVA identified that children with TBI demonstrated significantly poorer awareness than controls after controlling for parental education. Children with TBI typically overestimated their functioning compared to their parents, whereas typically developing children tended to rate their functioning lower than their parents. These findings provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the PAQ for assessing self-awareness after pediatric TBI.

publication date

  • 2018