OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of compensatory prospective memory training, preceded by self-awareness training for adults with traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with 4 intervention groups: (i) self-awareness plus compensatory prospective memory training; (ii) self-awareness training plus active control; (iii) active control plus compensatory prospective memory training; and (iv) active control only. SUBJECTS: Forty-five rehabilitation patients with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury living in the community. METHODS: Four groups of participants completed an 8-session individual intervention programme with pre- and post-assessment by a blind assessor on a standardized test of prospective memory, actual strategy use, relatives' ratings of prospective memory failure, and level of psychosocial reintegration. RESULTS: Larger changes in prospective memory test score and strategy use were found in groups with compensatory prospective memory training compared with those groups without. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence that prospective memory can be improved in patients with traumatic brain injury using a compensatory approach in a relatively short duration and low intensity intervention.