A silicon drift detector (SDD) was used for ex situ and time-resolved in situ fluorescence X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) on low-concentrated catalyst samples. For a single-element and a seven-element SDD the energy resolution and the peak-to-background ratio were verified at high count rates, sufficient for fluorescence XAFS. An experimental set-up including the seven-element SDD without any cooling and an in situ cell with gas supply and on-line gas analysis was developed. With this set-up the reduction and oxidation of a zeolite supported catalyst containing 0.3 wt% platinum was followed by fluorescence near-edge scans with a time resolution of 10 min each. From ex situ experiments on low-concentrated platinum- and gold-based catalysts fluorescence XAFS scans could be obtained with sufficient statistical quality for a quantitative analysis. Structural information on the gold and platinum particles could be extracted by both the Fourier transforms and the near-edge region of the XAFS spectra. Moreover, it was found that with the seven-element SDD concentrations of the element of interest as low as 100 ppm can be examined by fluorescence XAFS.