Ventilator Associated Lung Injury (VALI) is an iatrogenic phenomena that significantly impacts on the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. The hazards associated with mechanical ventilation are becoming increasingly understood courtesy of a large body of research. Barotrauma, volutrauma and biotrauma all play a role in VALI. Concomitant to this growth in understanding is the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious impact of mechanical ventilation. The majority of the research is based upon adult populations but with careful extrapolation this review will focus on paediatrics. This review article describes the physiological basis of VALI and discusses the various lung protective strategies that clinicians can employ to minimise its incidence and optimise outcomes for paediatric patients.