The nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band, a component of the basal forebrain magnocellular complex affected in Alzheimer type dementia, supplies centrifugal innervation to the olfactory bulb. We have tested the hypothesis that horizontal limb of the diagonal band lesions will interfere with olfactory memory in a simple olfactory test paradigm. Lesions occupied a restricted volume, approximately 20%, of medial horizontal limb of the diagonal band. There was interference with habituation of investigation latency and duration, six and 16 days after lesioning. It is concluded that bilateral partial lesions of the medial nucleus of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band interfere with habituation memory for odours.