Chemiluminescence detection of piperazine designer drugs and related compounds using tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) Academic Article uri icon


  • We present an exploration of the chemiluminescence from reactions of benzylpiperazines and phenylpiperazines with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III). The selectivity of the reagent towards these compounds was found to be highly dependent upon the pH of the solution, and the relative emission intensity was strongly influenced by electron donating or withdrawing substituents on the phenyl or benzyl ring. In spite of previous investigations showing poor responses for aromatic-substituted amines (compared to their aliphatic amine counterparts), intense emissions were observed with phenylpiperazines under acidic conditions, particularly those with halogen or trifluoromethyl substituents on the aromatic ring. Buffered alkaline conditions provided much broader selectivity for the detection of both phenylpiperazine and benzylpiperazine compounds, which we have applied to a rapid HPLC procedure for the determination of piperazines of forensic interest in 'party pill' samples.

publication date

  • 2013