Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a trinucleotide repeat disorder, is the most common heritable form of cognitive impairment. Since the discovery of the FMR1 gene in 1991, great strides have been made in the field of molecular diagnosis for FXS. Cytogenetic analysis, which was the method of diagnosis in the early 1990, was replaced by Southern blot and PCR analysis albeit with some limitations. In the past few years many PCR-based methodologies, able to amplify large full mutation expanded alleles, with or without methylation, have been proposed. Reviewed here are the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the most recent developments in the field of FXS diagnosis.