BACKGROUND:Increased rates of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders have been observed in female premutation carriers of CGG repeat expansion alleles of between 55-200 repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. To determine whether an abnormal immune profile was present at a cellular level that may predispose female carriers to autoinflammatory conditions, we investigated dynamic cytokine production following stimulation of blood cells. In addition, splenocyte responses were examined in an FMR1 CGG knock-in mouse model of the fragile X premutation. METHODS:Human monocyte and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) were isolated from the blood of 36 female FMR1 premutation carriers and 15 age-matched controls. Cells were cultured with media alone, LPS or PHA. In the animal model, splenocytes were isolated from 32 CGG knock-in mice and 32 wild type littermates. Splenocytes were cultured with media alone or LPS or PMA/Ionomycin. Concentrations of cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IFNγ, TNFα, and MCP-1) were determined from the supernatants of cellular cultures via Luminex multiplex assay. Additionally, phenotypic cellular markers were assessed on cells isolated from human subjects via flow cytometry. RESULTS:We found decreases in cytokine production in human premutation carriers as well as in the FMR1 knock-in mice when compared with controls. Levels of cytokines were found to be associated with CGG repeat length in both human and mouse. Furthermore, T cells from human premutation carriers showed decreases in cell surface markers of activation when compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, FMR1 CGG repeat expansions are associated with decreased immune responses and immune dysregulation in both humans and mice. Deficits in immune responses in female premutation carriers may lead to increased susceptibility to autoimmunity and further research is warranted to determine the link between FMR1 CGG repeat lengths and onset of autoinflammatory conditions.