Premutation fragile X carriers have a CGG repeat expansion (55 to 200 repeats) in the promoter region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Amygdala dysfunction has been observed in premutation symptomatology, and recent research has suggested the amygdala as an area susceptible to the molecular effects of the premutation. The current study utilizes structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the relationship between amygdala volume, CGG expansion size, FMR1 mRNA, and psychological symptoms in male premutation carriers without FXTAS compared with age and IQ matched controls. No significant between group differences in amygdala volume were found. However, a significant negative correlation between amygdala volume and CGG was found in the lower range of CGG repeat expansions, but not in the higher range of CGG repeat expansions.