It is still unclear why absence of the fragile X protein (FMRP) leads to mental retardation and specific behavioral problems. In neurons, the protein transports specific mRNAs towards the actively translating ribosomes near the synapses. To unravel the mechanism leading to the disorder, we performed global gene expression analysis by means of the differential display method using the fragile X mouse model. To verify differential expression, we used microarray technology and real-time PCR. Three differentially expressed cDNAs showed consistent underexpression in the fragile X knockout mouse, including a GABA(A) receptor subunit delta, a Rho guanine exchange factor 12 and an EST BU563433. In addition, we identified 5 genes that showed differential expression dependent on the sample of RNA analysis. We consider their differential expression as provisional. It is possible that these differentially expressed genes play an important role in the cognitive and behavioral problems observed in the fragile X syndrome.