Our objective was to determine the incidence and outcomes of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma in recipients of renal allografts.We analyzed data from 2000 to 2012 in the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, a binational population-based database, to identify the incidence and survival outcomes of renal transplant recipients with renal cell and transitional cell carcinoma.Of the 8850 renal transplants, there were 60 new diagnoses of renal cancers posttransplant, with an overall cumulative incidence of 56 per 100,000 per year. Nine tumors were detected in the allograft, and 51 tumors (85%) were detected in the native kidney of the recipient. The median time of diagnosis from transplant was 6.6 years (range, 0.1-8.9 y). There were no cancer-specific deaths from allograft tumors; however, 17 cancer-specific deaths (14 from renal cell carcinoma and 3 from transitional cell carcinoma) occurred in patients with cancer in the native kidney. The 5-year and 10-year cancer-specific survival rates for renal cell carcinoma were 71.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 57.0-84.0) and 58.5% (95% CI: 40.5-77.9), with 5-year and 10-year rates for transitional cell carcinoma of 50% (95% CI: 15.5-94.2) and 0%.Renal cell carcinoma occurring in the native kidney comprised most of the tumors detected after renal transplant; however, transitional cell carcinoma occurred sooner after transplant and resulted in a lower cancer-specific survival rate. While it is important to screen those at risk of TCC prior and after renal transplant, the low incidence of TCC maybe too small to justify a benefit with routine screening, compared to RCCs.