To determine how GPs manage breastfeeding women with mastitis and how confident they are in treating women with breast conditions that occur during lactation.A cross-sectional survey conducted among all Croatian GPs.Sixty-four per cent of the total number of respondents (171/268) had seen a patient with lactational mastitis (LM) in the previous 12 months. Among respondents who recommended medication for the treatment of LM, 93% prescribed an antibiotic (122/131). Fifteen per cent of respondents who gave advice on infant feeding advised alternative feeding methods. Approximately half (47%) felt completely confident when treating LM while more than half (57%) felt partially confident when treating other breast conditions that can occur during lactation.The management of LM among Croatian GPs is not in full compliance with current recommendations. FUTURE IMPLICATIONS: There is a need for further training of Croatian GPs in the management of mastitis.