Altogether 13 species of thermophilic fungi were isolated from soil samples collected at 100 sites in six climatic regions in Australia. The range of species was found to be similar to that in soils of other continents. All except two species were common cosmopolitan fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Thermomyces lanuginosus were the most common species. being found in more than 60% of soils tested. The widest range of species was found in soils of the cool, moist, south-eastern climatic zone.