The enteric nervous system arises predominantly from vagal level neural crest cells that migrate into and along the developing gut. As the neural crest-derived cells migrate within the gut, a subpopulation begins to differentiate into enteric neurons. Here, we show that the differentiation of neural crest-derived cells into enteric neurons is delayed in L1-deficient mice, compared with littermate controls. However, glial cell differentiation is not affected in L1-deficient mice. These mice also show a delay in the differentiation of a neurotransmitter-specific subtype of enteric neuron within the gastrointestinal tract. Together, these results suggest a role for the cell adhesion molecule, L1, in the differentiation of neural crest-derived cells into enteric neurons within the developing enteric nervous system.