Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a 32-kDa protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, is abundant in brown adipose tissue, as a proton transporter in mitochondria inner membrane which uncouples oxidative metabolism from ATP synthesis and dissipates energy through the heat. UCP1 has been reported to play important roles for energy homeostasis in rodents and neonate of larger mammals including human. Recently, numerous candidate genes were searched to determine the genetic factors implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, related metabolic disorders and diabetes. UCP-1, which plays a major role in thermogenesis, was suggested to be one of the candidates. This review summarizes data supporting the existence of brown adipocytes and the role of UCP1 in energy dissipation in adult humans, and the genetic variety association with the fat metabolism, obesity and diabetes.