Innate lymphocyte populations play a central role in conferring protective immunity at the mucosal frontier. In this study, we demonstrate that T cell factor 1 (TCF-1; encoded by Tcf7), a transcription factor also important for NK and T cell differentiation, is expressed by multiple innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subsets, including GATA3(+) nuocytes (ILC2) and NKp46(+) ILCs (ILC3), which confer protection against lung and intestinal inflammation. TCF-1 was intrinsically required for the differentiation of both ILC2 and NKp46(+) ILC3. Loss of TCF-1 expression impaired the capacity of these ILC subsets to produce IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22 and resulted in crippled responses to intestinal infection with Citrobacter rodentium. Furthermore, a reduction in T-bet expression required for Notch-2-dependent development of NKp46(+) ILC3 showed a dose-dependent reduction in TCF-1 expression. Collectively, our findings demonstrate an essential requirement for TCF-1 in ILC2 differentiation and reveal a link among Tcf7, Notch, and Tbx21 in NKp46(+) ILC3 development.