Diablo/Smac is a mammalian pro-apoptotic protein that can antagonize the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). We have produced monoclonal antibodies specific for Diablo and have used these to examine its tissue distribution and subcellular localization in healthy and apoptotic cells. Diablo could be detected in a wide range of mouse tissues including liver, kidney, lung, intestine, pancreas and testes by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis found Diablo to be most abundant in the germinal cells of the testes, the parenchymal cells of the liver and the tubule cells of the kidney. In support of previous subcellular localization analysis, Diablo was present within the mitochondria of healthy cells, but released into the cytosol following the induction of apoptosis by UV.