Methionine residues are linked to the pathogenicity of several amyloid diseases; however, the mechanism of this relationship is largely unknown. These diseases are characterized, in vivo, by the accumulation of insoluble proteinaceous plaques, of which the major constituents are amyloid fibrils. In vitro, methionine oxidation has been shown to modulate fibril assembly in several well-characterized amyloid systems. Human apolipoprotein (apo) C-II contains two methionine residues (Met-9 and Met-60) and readily self-assembles in vitro to form homogeneous amyloid fibrils, thus providing a convenient system to examine the effect of methionine oxidation on amyloid fibril formation and stability. Upon oxidation of the methionine residues of apoC-II with hydrogen peroxide, fibril formation was inhibited. Oxidized apoC-II molecules did not inhibit native apoC-II assembly, indicating that the oxidized molecules had a reduced ability to interact with the growing fibrils. Single Met-Val substitutions were performed and showed that oxidation of Met-60 had a more significant inhibitory effect than oxidation of Met-9. In addition, Met-Gln substitutions designed to mimic the effect of oxidation on side chain hydrophilicity showed that a change in hydrophobicity at position 60 within the core region of the fibril had a potent inhibitory effect. The oxidation of preformed apoC-II fibrils caused their dissociation; however, mutants in which the Met-60 was substituted with a valine were protected from this peroxide-induced dissociation. This work highlights an important role for methionine in the formation of amyloid fibril structure and gives new insight into how oxidation affects the stability of mature fibrils.