Evaluation of the paediatric foot using footprints and foot posture index: A cross‐sectional study Academic Article uri icon


  • AIM:Footprints have long been used as proxy measures of foot morphology, yet there is little consensus regarding footprints versus measures of foot posture, which address foot anatomy directly. Foot posture in children can be a confusing clinical presentation, with previous studies both supporting and refuting the relationship between childhood obesity and flat feet. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between footprints and foot posture in children. METHODS:A total of 316 school children (153 boys, 163 girls) from Spain, aged 6-9 years, were assessed for both footprint (Clarke's angle (CA)), by Tecniwork Pedrograph Plate, and foot posture (foot posture index (FPI)) measures, with participants barefoot, in a relaxed standing position, on a 50-cm elevated platform. RESULTS:A negative correlation was found between FPI and footprints (CA) (rho = -0.505 left, P < 0.001) and by gender (rho = -0.457 for the left foot in girls, P < 0.001; rho = -0.548 for the left foot in boys, P < 0.001). The children with pes cavus according to the CA (73.3%) had normal feet according to FPI, and the children with severe pes planus according to the CA (78.98%) had pronated feet according to the FPI. A χ2 test showed these results to be statistically significant (P > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:An inverse relationship between CA and FPI was identified, that is, the greater the FPI, the smaller the CA, but not all pronated foot are planus feet and not all cavus feet are supinated feet. Footprints may overestimate and misguide paediatric foot posture concerns.


  • Gijon‐Nogueron, Gabriel
  • Marchena‐Rodriguez, Ana
  • Montes‐Alguacil, Jesus
  • Evans, Angela M

publication date

  • February 1, 2020