Supplemental oxygen (O2) increases the risk of lung injury in preterm infants, owing to an immature antioxidant system. Our objective was to determine whether impairing antioxidant defense by decreasing glutathione peroxidase 1 ( GPx1) gene expression increases the injurious effects of hyperoxia (Hyp). GPx1+/+ and GPx1−/− C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to 21% O2 (Air) or 40% O2 (Hyp) from birth to postnatal day 7 (P7d); they were euthanized on P7d or maintained in air until adulthood [postnatal day 56 (P56d)] to assess short-term and long-term effects, respectively. We assessed lung architecture, three markers of pulmonary oxidative stress (P7d, P56d), macrophages in lung tissue (P7d), immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; P56d), and GPx1-4 and catalase gene expression in lung tissue (P7d, P56d). On P7d, macrophages were decreased by lack of GPx1 expression and further decreased by hyperoxia. GPx1 expression was increased in GPx1+/+Hyp mice and decreased in both GPx1−/− groups. On P56d, heme oxygenase-1 was increased by hyperoxia when GPx1 was absent. There were significantly more immune cells from Hyp groups than from the GPx1+/+Air group and a greater proportion of lymphocytes in GPx1−/−Hyp mice. GPx1 expression was significantly decreased in GPx1−/− mice; GPx2-4 and catalase expression was increased in GPx1−/−Hyp mice compared with other groups. Tissue fraction was decreased in GPx1−/−Air mice; bronchiolar smooth muscle was decreased in GPx1−/− mice. GPx1 does not clearly exacerbate hyperoxia-induced increases in oxidative stress or lung injury but may alter pulmonary immune function. Increased expression of GPx2-4 and catalase in GPx1−/−Hyp mice suggests gene redundancy within the model.