The authors hypothesized that glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx-1) contributes to the neuroprotection seen in the superoxide dismutase-1 transgenic (Sod-1 tg) mouse. To investigate this hypothesis, they crossed the Gpx-1 -/- mouse with the Sod-1 tg and subjected the cross to a mouse model of ischemia/reperfusion. Two hours of focal cerebral ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion was induced via intraluminal suture. The Sod-1 tg/Gpx-1 -/- cross exhibited no neuroprotection when infarct volume was measured; indeed, infarct volume increased in the Sod-1 tg/Gpx-1 -/- cross compared with the wild-type mouse. Our results suggest that Gpx-1 plays an important regulatory role in the protection of neural cells in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury.