Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders (AMDs) in HIV-infected individuals has varied widely due to the variety of measurements used and differences in risk factor profiles between different populations. We aimed to examine the relationship between HIV-status and hospitalisation for AMDs in GBM.and Methods: HIV-infected (n=557) and -uninfected (n=1325) GBM recruited in Sydney, Australia were probabilistically linked to their hospital admissions and death notifications (2000-2012). Random-effects Poisson models were used to assess risk factors for hospitalisation. Cox regression methods were used to assess risk factors for mortality.We observed 300 hospitalisations for AMDs in 15.3% of HIV-infected and 181 in 5.4% of -uninfected participants. Being infected with HIV was associated with a 2 and a half fold increase in risk of hospitalisation for AMDs in GBM. Other risk factors in the HIV-infected cohort included previous hospitalisation for HIV-related dementia, a more recent HIV-diagnosis and a CD4 T-cell count above 350/mm. Being hospitalised for an AMD was associated with a 5 and a half fold increased risk of mortality, this association did not differ by HIV status. An association between substance use and mortality was observed in individuals hospitalised for AMDs.There is a need to provide more effective strategies to identify and treat AMDs in HIV-infected GBM. This research highlights the importance of further examination of the effects of substance use, neurocognitive decline and AMDs on the health of HIV-infected individuals.