Neutrophils are rapidly deployed innate immune cells, and excessive recruitment is causally associated with influenza-induced pathologic conditions. Despite this, the complete set of influenza lethality-associated neutrophil effector proteins is currently unknown. Whether the expression of these proteins is predetermined during bone marrow (BM) neutrophil maturation or further modulated by tissue compartment transitions has also not been comprehensively characterized at a proteome-wide scale. In this study, we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to map how the proteomes of murine neutrophils change comparatively across BM, blood, and the alveolar airspaces to deploy an influenza lethality-associated response. Following lethal influenza infection, mature neutrophils undergo two infection-dependent and one context-independent compartmental transitions. Translation of type I IFN-stimulated genes is first elevated in the BM, preceding the context-independent downregulation of ribosomal proteins observed in blood neutrophils. Following alveolar airspace infiltration, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophil proteome is further characterized by a limited increase in type I IFN-stimulated and metal-sequestering proteins as well as a decrease in degranulation-associated proteins. An influenza-selective and dose-dependent increase in antiviral and lipid metabolism-associated proteins was also observed in BAL neutrophils, indicative of a modest capacity for pathogen response tuning. Altogether, our study provides new and comprehensive evidence that the BAL neutrophil proteome is shaped by BM neutrophil maturation as well as subsequent compartmental transitions following lethal influenza infection.