Sports Participation 2 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes Who Had Not Returned to Sport at 1 Year A Prospective Follow-up of Physical Function and Psychological Factors in 122 Athletes
A return to their preinjury level of sport is frequently expected within 1 year after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, yet up to two-thirds of athletes may not have achieved this milestone. The subsequent sports participation outcomes of athletes who have not returned to their preinjury level sport by 1 year after surgery have not previously been investigated.To investigate return-to-sport rates at 2 years after surgery in athletes who had not returned to their preinjury level sport at 1 year after ACL reconstruction.Case series; Level of evidence, 4.A consecutive cohort of competitive- and recreational-level athletes was recruited prospectively before undergoing ACL reconstruction at a private orthopaedic clinic. Participants were followed up at 1 and 2 years after surgery with a sports activity questionnaire that collected information regarding returning to sport, sports participation, and psychological responses. An independent physical therapist evaluated physical function at 1 year using hop tests and the International Knee Documentation Committee knee examination form and subjective knee evaluation.A group of 122 competitive- and recreational-level athletes who had not returned to their preinjury level sport at 1 year after ACL reconstruction participated. Ninety-one percent of the athletes returned to some form of sport after surgery. At 2 years after surgery, 66% were playing sport, with 41% playing their preinjury level of sport and 25% playing a lower level of sport. Having a previous ACL reconstruction to either knee, poorer hop-test symmetry and subjective knee function, and more negative psychological responses were associated with not playing the preinjury level sport at 2 years.Most athletes who were not playing sport at 1 year had returned to some form of sport within 2 years after ACL reconstruction, which may suggest that athletes can take longer than the clinically expected time of 1 year to return to sport. However, only 2 of every 5 athletes were playing their preinjury level of sport at 2 years after surgery. When the results of the current study were combined with the results of athletes who had returned to sport at 1 year, the overall rate of return to the preinjury level sport at 2 years was 60%. Demographics, physical function, and psychological factors were related to playing the preinjury level sport at 2 years after surgery, supporting the notion that returning to sport after surgery is multifactorial.