Impact of estrogens on the regulation of white, beige, and brown adipose tissue depots
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As adipose tissue depots are active endocrine organs, they secrete a variety of hormones (including estrogens from white adipose) and inflammatory mediators, which have important implications in numerous obesity-associated diseases. Adipose tissues are broadly characterized as consisting of white, beige, and brown depot types. The endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles of adipose are depot dependent and influenced by the estrogenic and androgenic status of the adipose tissue. Estrogen receptors mediate both the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogens and are expressed in the brain, heart, and other peripheral tissues. All three known estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) are expressed in white adipose and can modulate adipose mass. Expression of each receptor is dependent on depot location, adipose cell type, and estrogen levels. Estrogen receptor expression profiles in beige and brown adipocytes are less well established. This review will discuss the effects of estrogens on the differential deposition of the major adipose tissues and the impact of estrogens within white adipose depots. © 2019 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 9:457-475, 2019.
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