Sequence elimination is one of the main mechanisms that increases the divergence among homoeologous chromosomes after allopolyploidization to enhance the stability of recently established lineages, but it can cause a loss of some economically important genes. Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) is an important source of genetic variation to the natural hexaploid wheat (NHW) genepool that has low genetic diversity. Here, we investigated the change between SHW and NHW genomes by utilizing a large germplasm set of primary synthetics and synthetic derivatives. Reproducible segment elimination (RSE) was declared if a large chromosomal chunk (>5 cM) produced no aligned reads in more than five SHWs. RSE in five genomic regions was the major source of variation between SHW and NHW. One RSE eliminated almost the complete short arm of chromosome 1B, which contains major genes for flour quality, disease resistance and different enzymes. The occurrence of RSE was highly dependent on the choice of diploid and tetraploid parental lines, their ancestral subpopulation and admixture, e.g. SHWs derived from Triticum dicoccon or from one of two Aegilops tauschii subpopulations were almost free of RSE, while highly admixed parents had higher RSE rates. The rate of RSE in synthetic derivatives was almost double that in primary synthetics. Genome-wide association analysis detected four loci with minor effects on the occurrence of RSE, indicating that both parental lines and genetic factors were affecting the occurrence of RSE. Therefore, pre-pre-breeding strategies should be applied before introducing SHW into pre-breeding programs to ensure genomic stability and avoid undesirable gene loss.